by Natalie Efird
- Anterior Scalene Syndrome or Scalene Anticus Syndrome – TOS in the Anterior and middle scalene
- Pectoralis Minor Syndrome or Hyperabduction Syndrome – TOS beneath the pectoralis minor muscle
- Costoclavicular Syndrome or Edens Syndrome – TOS between the clavicle and the first rib
Chinese medicine considers pain to be stagnation of Qi or blood, or both. Individual diagnosis is necessary as each person’s underlying causal factors are likely different. Sometimes stagnation responsible for pain is due to Cold or Damp, which can obstruct the flow of Qi and blood (Joswick, D., 2017). Paresthesias (pins and needles sensation) or tingling is considered Wind in Chinese medicine and the Chinese Liver system is in charge of nerves (McMullen, C., 2017). Another factor to consider when diagnosing an individual is whether the condition is caused by an Excess (Yang) or a Deficiency (Yin); with Excess (Yang), muscle tension, over use, and inflammation are often present and with Deficiency (Yin), lack of tension, inactivity, not enough blood/undernourishment is found (McMullen, C., 2017). In addition to massage, cupping can be used for Excesses, and for Deficiencies moxa has a good effect (McMullen, C., 2017). The ultimate treatment goal of Chinese medicine concerning TOS is to invigorate Qi and Blood circulation, unblock the channels and ease the pain (Gu. S., 2007).